Policy Areas

In the EU, Member States have relinquished part of their national sovereignty to EU institutions, with many decisions made and final authority residing at the EU level.

For example, only the EU may legislate and adopt legally binding acts regarding the customs union, the common commercial policy, competition rules, and monetary policy for countries that use the euro. The EU also coordinates economic and employment policy and a common foreign and security policy.

The EU shares jurisdiction with Member States in areas including internal market rules; aspects of social policy; economic, social, and territorial cohesion; agriculture and aspects of fisheries; the environment; consumer protection; transport; trans-European networks; energy; freedom, security, and justice; aspects of public health; facets of research and technological development and space; and elements of development cooperation and humanitarian aid.